The terms restoration and nature-based solutions are both commonly used these days, and sometimes used interchangeably. But are they identical? This new 4-page briefing by the James Hutton Institute explores the basic concepts and the implications: ranging from the goals and scales of work, through to who is involved, how and when, sources of funding, and how projects are monitored. The conclusion is that restoration and nature-based solutions are mutually supportive and involve some similar activities; however they can be quite distinct in the package and balance of activities planned. NbS entails working with – and for – a wider set of actors whose involvement may in turn help bolster the resources and scales of work by those projects. Neither concept is ‘better’ than the other, but reflecting on this will be important when planning catchment management.