Coastal NFM measures typically are used to increase the natural resilience of the shoreline and improve flood and erosion protection. They do this by improving the volume, altitude and health of natural buffers, thus helping absorb wave and tidal energy. Measures can be applied to coastal or intertidal areas, or sometimes both. Sand dunes, for example, can be restored to improve the stability of the dune and increase its ability to dissipate wave energy and protect landward areas. Dissipation of wave and tidal energy can also be improved by replacing sediment eroded from beaches or restoring intertidal habitats such as saltmarsh and mudflats.